Snakes are to believed to poisonous, fortunately not all snakes are. Despite all snakes not being poisonous, they are all harmful and can hurt you in their specific ways.

Snake Poison is a highly modified saliva containing zoo-toxins that ease the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threat. It is injected by a unique fangs( a long pointed tooth in mammals especially) during a bite, and some species are also able to spit their venom (poison). Just like amphibians and vertebrates, snakes possess a gland called Parotid salivary gland that secretes the zoo-toxins and they can be found on each side of the head and behind or beneath the eye.

Snakes poison is a digestive liquid like i mentioned earlier, and so they are contain a complex mixture of protein, enzymes and other substances with toxic and deadly properties.

These complex protein mixture are categorized in the following below:

1. NEUROTOXIN These toxins produce a severe effect on the nervous system. The action paralyses the muscles and death can occur by inhibition of breathing and stoppage of heartbeat. Most Cobra and sea snake follow into this category. This make the Cobras very deadly i guess!

2. HAEMOTOXINS These toxins affect the blood vessels. They could rupture the blood vessel or even the red blood cells often leading to intense internal bleeding. Poison with such toxins can dissolve any other body tissues, some agglutinate blood.

The Venom of some snake usually contains a mixture of most, if not all the components of neurotoxins and haemotoxins, but in varying component proportions. The overall effects of any snake poison depends on the predominant component or ingredients. Gabon viper for example produces all types. The lethal dose of snake poison depends on the quantity of venom injected. The effects of the latter vary according to the body weight of the individual.

Modern treatment of snakes bites is by the injection of antivenins are attenuated venom from poisonous snakes intentionally introduced into horses, and abstracted when the serum has acquired antibodies able to neutralize snake venom.

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I have been so keen about knowing more about Amphibians especially Frogs and Toads, i did a lot of reading and observations and i came up with this content and i think its worth reading.

Frogs and Toads are under a class of Amphibian called Anurans. Before now many people thought frogs and Toad were the only creatures under the Amphibians class. Nevertheless, they also the most popular. We most times refer to all Anurans as frogs and toads, some even say frogs are male and toads are female. Lol…what a Misconception! if you ever believed this, please let us know in the comment section.

In this content i will reveal to you specific names of Six Amphibian called Frogs and Toads. There so many Frogs and Toads suited for special mode of life.

1.RANA (Pond Frog, Brown Frog, True Frog)

Pond Frogs are found through much of Eurasia and Western North America. These True Frogs are usually huge species characterized by their slender waist and wrinkled skin, many have thin ridges running along their backs, but they are generally lack warts as in typical toads. They are excellent jumpers due to their long slender legs. The webbing found on their hind feet allows for easy movement through water. Female True Frog lay eggs in rafts or large globular group, and can produce up to 20,000 tadpoles at once. Rana Species feed mainly on insect and invertebrates, but swallow anything that can fit into their mouths oncluding vertebrates. Their predators are egrets, crocodiles and snakes.


Tailed Frogs are found in North America. Tailed frogs lives in mountain streams as they are aquatic animals. Their tail is one of the two distinctive anatomical features adapting the species to life in fast flowing streams.Their breeding season (a time to reproduce) last from May through October. They reproduce by internal fertilization, females deposit their eggs in strings under rocks in fast flowing streams. Tailed frogs feed on a variety of food items, including both aquatic and terrestrial larval and adult insect. While their tadpoles feed consumes small quantities of filamentous algae, they also consume large quantities of conifer pollen seasonally. Tailed frogs prefer large turbulent waters to smooth swiftly flowing water, as a result; their large sucker like mouth parts enables them to survive.

3. ALYTES (Midwife toad)

Midwife toad is one of the species found across Europe, Northern Africa and Majorca. They are usually shy and nocturnal. They often reside in dry, sandy soil because its easier to dig. This toad uses the end of its sticky tongue to pick up prey including crickets beetles, flies, caterpillars, centipedes, ants, etc. Their back is coated with small warts and these warts give off an awful poison when they are under attack. This toad exhibits a level of parental care, their male toads even carry their eggs wrapped around the legs to protect them from predators. The tadpole does not possess the poison and so they fall prey to fish and insect, therefore they need grace to stay alive till adulthood...Lol.


Pipa are species found in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad, Tobago, Peru, etc. Pipa is a more specialized aquatic frog. It has very small eyes, no teeth and no tongue. It is a predator and a scavenger, capturing invertebrates and small fish with it’s star-fingered hands to eat or swallowing dead creatures it comes across. It has a developed and elaborate arrangement by which the young are carried in pits on the back. The Suriname and a Mottle brown leaf, and are similar in appearance and is almost absolutely flat.

5. XENOPUS (Clawed Frogs)

The Clawed Frog is an aquatic frog located in the Sub Saharan Africa. they are usually found in lakes, rivers, swamp, potholes in streams and man made reservoir. Adult frogs are predators and scavengers and since there tongues are unusable, the frogs use their small fore limbs to aid in feeding process. It is quite related with pipa but without carrying its young. They are proficient swimmer, barely able to hop but can crawl. It spends most times under water and often comes to the surface to breathe, they may lie dormant for up to a year. They are hardy and can live up to 15 years. All Xenopus are flattened, somewhat spherical and streamlined bodies and has a very slippery skin (because of a protective mucus covering). it’s skin is smooth but with a lateral line sensory organ. It’s quite related to the Pipa, but without the habit of carrying its young. Their Adults are also scavengers and predators, and since there tongues are unusable, the frogs use their small fore limbs to aid in feeding process.

6. BUFO (True Toad)

The Bufonid Toad are among the most successful of all Amphibian groups, and more fully adapted than most for a terrestrial life, but return nearly always to the water to breed. True Toad is common and well known. It is found in all parts of the world except Australia & Antarctica inhabiting a variety of environments from dry area to rain forest. They lay eggs in paired strands that hatch in tadpoles. True toads are generally warty in appearance and toothless. They possess a pair of Parotoid gland (its an external skin gland on the back, neck and salamanders that excretes alkaloid poison) The alkaloid poison is excreted when they stressed and are used to scare off predators. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different amphibians significantly different substances and proportions of this substance (bufotoxin). Some like the cane toad are more toxic than others. Under right conditions, Bufo male toads become females since they possess bidder’s organ.


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